Suffrage for Swiss Women A More than 100-Year-Long Struggle In Custodia Legis: Law Librarians of Congress

This reluctance by the Federal Council to act on the issue became a recurring theme over the following decades. Several attempts by Swiss parliamentarians to get the Federal Council to act were unsuccessful as well. The Federal Council continued to refuse to address the issue until 1951, when the Federal Council responded to the parliament that it was too early to introduce political rights for women.

Interestingly enough, women in Appenzell Inner-Rhodes have a voting card, whereas men can present either a voting card or a sword to show their voting eligibility. A link for the online screening was provided on the study homepage. Women interested in participation were led to the online platform Unipark, where they were asked to provide initial, brief information followed by a declaration of consent. All questionnaires at baseline, t1 and t3 (), the data analysis of retrospectively assessed relationship experiences (), as well as the mood and cycle diary (), are completed online. The participants were explicitly informed about the study design, the aims, the procedure and the expected duration of each part of the assessment. The online platform Unipark is reliably protected from any external access. The BSI-certified (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik ) data center is subject to requirements of high data protection and safety in conformity with ISO 27,001 based on the IT basic protection.

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Our biochemical laboratory at the Institute of Psychology, University of Zurich, performs the salivary and DBS analyses. As listed in Table 2, most endocrine parameters are assessed in saliva. Thawed saliva samples are centrifuged and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; IBL International GmbH, Hamburg, Germany). FSH and LH levels are determined in DBS samples using the MILLIPLEX MAP Human Pituitary Magnetic Bead Panel 1 . Intra-assay variation for this kit for FSH and LH is less than 10% and inter-assay variation less than 15%. Sex hormone-binding globulin can be measured in DBS using Human SHBG ELISA Kit with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variability of less than 10% .

  • From the first female Swiss president to a women who drove long-haul trucks or was the first blade runner in the country.
  • But the global #MeToo movement has encouraged others to attack a wider culture of discrimination and disrespect.
  • VATICAN CITY, May 4 – The new barracks of the Vatican Swiss guards will be built to accommodate female members if Pope Francis or his successors allow women to join the elite and colourfully dressed force.
  • However, there is no way to determine whether the Swiss men would have accepted the introduction of women’s suffrage earlier if the Federal Council would have pushed the issue.
  • The result of Sunday’s vote paves the way for the country’s first pension reform in 25 years and is intended to stabilise the national pension situation at least for the next few years.

Whether you’re looking for a new hit for your own wardrobe or a gift for someone else, discover women’s fashion clothing at Alpine Swiss. In the first federal elections in which women were allowed to participate, held on October 31, 1971, ten women were elected to theNational Council and one woman to theCouncil of States. A women’s rights sign was projected on the Roche Tower in Basel ahead of the strike. Friday’s protest may be the first of a series to highlight women’s issues, said Noemi Blazquez Benito, the strike organizer in Geneva. On Tuesday, Switzerland was also named as one of the least family-friendly European countries in a report from Unicef. The country granted women paid maternity leave in 2005, but there is still no statutory paternity leave.

Public transport, schools and refinery supplies were disrupted on Tuesday in France as trade unions led a third wave of nationwide strikes against President Emmanuel Macron’s plans to make the French work longer before retirement. The Foundation of the Pontifical Swiss Guard, which supports the guard financially, has already raised about 37 million francs and needs to raise about 7.5 million more, Boscardin told Reuters. “There are two reasons. One is because COVID hit when the project started and the second is the possibility of integrating women into the guard,” Boscardin said. Protesters have been organizing using the hashtags #Frauenstreik and #GrèvedesFemmes, which mean “women’s strike” in German and French, respectively. Women have seen progress since then, but they say it’s not enough.

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Although Switzerland boasts one of the highest rates of wealth per adult in the world, women lamented the country’s slow pace in correcting inequalities between the sexes. Swiss women turned out by the thousands on Friday for a nationwide strike and demonstrations signaling their frustration over deep-rooted inequalities in one of the richest countries in the world.

Sometimes the choice was made for us, as the women asked didn’t want to be interviewed or there just wasn’t enough research on their lives. We wanted a diverse group of women—women from different backgrounds, with different passions, and different degrees of recognition in Switzerland and the world.

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The idea for writing a book of short biographies on amazing Swiss women came from one of the authors on the project, Laurie Theurer. When she was writing her book, Swisstory, , she included a short chapter devoted to Swiss women. The maternal mortality rate in Switzerland is 5.00 deaths/100,000 live births . Abortion is legal during the first trimester, upon condition of counseling, for women who state that they are in distress; and at later stages for medical reasons.

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The subsequent proposal of the Federal Council included women’s suffrage at the federal level, but left voting at the cantonal and communal level to be determined by cantonal law. On February 7, 1971, Swiss men accepted women’s suffrage 65.7% to 34% after a more than 100-year long fight. The first referendum on women’s suffrage held in 1959 was rejected by 66.9% of voters and an overwhelming majority of the Swiss cantons . Three cantons, namely Vaud, Geneva, and Neuchâtel, that had voted in favor of women’s suffrage, started granting women political rights for cantonal and municipal elections after the failed first federal referendum. However, not all remaining cantons followed suit after the 1971 federal referendum, with paragraph 4 of the amended article 74 retaining the sovereignty of the cantons with regard to cantonal and municipal elections. (BV, art. 8, para. 3; formerly art.4, para. 2.) On April 28, 1991—30 years ago today—women in Appenzell Inner-Rhoden were finally able to join their peers and vote in cantonal elections .

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Four previous attempts to secure it had previously failed at the ballot box. The sociodemographic data of the participants are shown in Table4. The participants’ age at the point of study enrollment ranged from 40 to 56 years, with a mean of 48.60 years. With regard to highest educational attainment, 43.0% had completed university education and 37.0% had completed secondary school. In accordance with the STRAW criteria , a total of 43.7% were in the early phase of the menopausal transition, while 56.3% were in the late phase at the point of screening. Overall, 60.0% of the women showed no prior depression and 40.0% of the participants reported a history of depression.